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AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. (2019, October). Automatic emergency braking with pedestrian detection. Albert, R. R., & Dolgin, K. G. (2010). Lasting effects of short-term training on preschoolers' street-crossing behavior. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42(2), 500-508. 

America Walks. (2023). [Untitled web page, portal and home page]. 

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (2010). Highway safety manual, 1st ed.

Anderson, C. L., Vaca, F. E., & Chakravarthy, B. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in pedestrian injuries. Injury Prevention, 16 (Supplement 1), A259. 

Arbogast, H., Burke, R. V., Muller, V., Ruiz, P., Knudson, M. M., & Upperman, J. S. (2014). Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a video game as a child pedestrian educational tool. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 76(5), 1317-1321. 

Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals. (2022). [Untitled web page, portal and home page].

Barrios, J. M., Hochberg, Y. V., & Yi, L. H. (2018). The cost of convenience: Ridesharing and traffic fatalities (New Working Paper Series No. 27). Stigler Center for the Study of the Economy and the State. 

Barton, B. K., & Schwebel, D. C. (2007). The influences of demographics and individual differences on children’s selection of risky pedestrian routes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32(3), 343-353. 

Baumgartner, F. R., Epp, D. A., & Shoub, K. (2018). Suspect citizens: What 20 million traffic stops tell us about policing and race. Cambridge University Press. 

Bertulis, T. & Dulaski, D. M. (2014). Driver approach speed and its impact on driver yielding to pedestrian behavior at unsignalized crosswalks. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2464, 46-51. 

Bhatia, R., & Wier, M. (2011). “Safety in Numbers” re-examined: Can we make valid or practical inferences from available evidence? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(1), 235-240. 

Blank, K., Sandt, L., & O’Brien, S. (2020). The role of law enforcement in supporting pedestrian and bicyclist safety: An idea book (Report No. DOT HS 812 852). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Blomberg, R. D., & Cleven, A. M. (1998). Development, implementation, and evaluation of a pedestrian safety zone for elderly pedestrians (Report No. DOT HS 808 692). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.   

Blomberg, R. D., & Cleven, A. M. (2000). Development, implementation, and evaluation of a countermeasure program for alcohol-involved pedestrian crashes (Report No. DOT HS 809 067). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Blomberg, R. D., & Cleven, A. M. (2006). Pilot test of Heed the Speed, a program to reduce speeds in residential neighborhoods (Report No. DOT HS 810 648). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Blomberg, R. D., Thomas, F. D., & Marziani, B. J. (2012). Demonstration and evaluation of the Heed the Speed safety program (Report No. DOT HS 811 515). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Blomberg, R. D., Wright, T. J., & Thomas, F. D. (2019). DWI history of fatally injured pedestrians (Report No. DOT HS 812 748). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Brookshire, K., Sandt, L., Sundstrom, C., Thomas, L., & Blomberg, R. (2016). Advancing pedestrian and bicyclist safety: A primer for highway safety professionals (Report No. DOT HS 812 258). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Bruce, B., & McGrath, P. (2005). Group interventions for the prevention of injuries in young children: A systematic review. Injury Prevention, 11(3), 143-147. 

Buehler, R., Pucher, J., & Bauman, A. (2020). Physical activity from walking and cycling for daily travel in the United States, 2001–2017: Demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic variation. Journal of Transport & Health, 16, 100811. 

Buttazzoni, A. N., Van Kesteren, E. S., Shah, T. I., & Gilliland, J. A. (2018). Active school travel intervention methodologies in North America: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 55(1), 115–124. 

Carter, D., Gelinne, D., Kirley, B., Sundstrom, C., Srinivasan, R., & Palcher-Silliman, J. (2017). Road safety fundamentals: Concepts, strategies, and practices that reduce fatalities and injuries on the road (Report No. FHWA-SA-18-003). Federal Highway Administration. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Motor vehicle traffic-related pedestrian deaths - United States, 2001-2010. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 62(15), 277–282. 

Chakravarthy, B., Anderson, C. L., Ludlow, J., Lotfipour, S., & Vaca, F. E. (2012). A geographic analysis of collisions involving child pedestrians in a large Southern California county. Traffic Injury Prevention, 13(2), 193-198. 

Chen, C., Lin, H., & Loo, B. P. Y. (2012). Exploring the impacts of safety culture on immigrants’ vulnerability in non-motorized crashes: A cross-sectional study. Journal of  Urban Health, 89(1), 138-152.

Cloutier, M-S., Lachapelle, U., d’Amours-Ouellet, A-A., Bergeron, J., Lord, S., & Torres, J. (2017). “Outta my way!” Individual and environmental correlates of interactions between pedestrians and vehicles during street crossings. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 104, 36-45. 

Coffin, A., & Morrall, J. (1995). Walking speeds of elderly pedestrians at crosswalks. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (1487), 63-67. 

Combs, T., Sandt, L. S., Clamann, M., & McDonald, N. (2019). Automated vehicles and pedestrian safety: Exploring the promise and limits of pedestrian detection. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 56(1), 1–7. 

Congiu, M., Whelan, M., Oxley, J., Charlton, J., d'Elia, A., & Muir, C. (2008). Child pedestrians: Factors associated with ability to cross roads safely and development of a training package (Report No. 283). Monash University Accident Research Centre. 

Cottrill, C. D., & Thakuriah, P. (2010). Evaluating pedestrian crashes in areas with high low- income or minority populations. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42(6), 1718-1728. 

Delouche, S., Ballesteros, C., Flores, D., Pomares, B., & Hotz, G. (2019). WalkSafe keeps walking for 15 years: A program review. American Journal of Public Health109(1), 116-118. 

Dill, J., Navia Pelaez, A., Monsere, C., Kim, K., McNeil, N., Kothuri, S., MacArthur, J., Brodie, S., & Proulx, F. (2021). AASHTO council on active transportation: Research roadmap. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 

DiMaggio, C., Frangos, S. G., & Li, G. (2016). National Safe Routes to School program and risk of school-age pedestrian and bicyclist injury. Annals of Epidemiology, 26(6), 412-417. 

DiMaggio, C., & Li, G. (2013). Effectiveness of a safe routes to school program in preventing school-aged pedestrian injury. Pediatrics, 131(2), 290-296. 

Dommes, A., & Cavallo, V. (2012). Can simulator-based training improve street-crossing safety for elderly pedestrians? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behavior, 15(2), 206-218. 

Dommes, A., Cavallo, V., Vienne, F., & Aillerie, I. (2012). Age-related differences in street-crossing safety before and after training of older pedestrians. Accident Analysis & Prevention44(1), 42-47.

Dragutinovic, N., & Twisk, D. (2006). The effectiveness of road safety education: A literature review (Report No. R-1006-6). SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research.   

Dunckel, J., Haynes, W., Conklin, J., Sharp, S., & Cohen, A. (2014). Pedestrian safety initiative in Montgomery County, Maryland: Data-driven approach to coordinating engineering, education, and enforcement. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2464(1), 100-108.

Dunne, R. G., Asher, K. N., & Rivara, F. P. (1992). Behavior and parental expectations of child pedestrians. Pediatrics, 89(3), 486-490. 

Eichelberger, A. H., McCartt, A. T., & Cicchino, J. B. (2018). Fatally injured pedestrians and bicyclists in the United States with high blood alcohol concentrations. Journal of Safety Research, 65, 1-9. 

Elvik, R., & Bjørnskau, T. (2017). Safety-in-numbers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence. Safety Science92, 274-282. 

Elvik, R., Christensen, P., & Helene Amundsen, A. (2004). Speed and road accidents: An evaluation of the power model. Transportøkonomisk Institutt. 

Elvik, R., & Goel, R. (2019). Safety-in-numbers: An updated meta-analysis of estimates. Accident Analysis & Prevention129, 136-147. 

Epp, C. R., Maynard-Moody, S., & Haider-Markel, D. (2017). Beyond profiling: The institutional sources of racial disparities in policing. Public Administration Review, 77(2), 168–178. 

Erhardt, G. D., Roy, S., Cooper, D., Sana, B., Chen, M., & Castiglione, J. (2019). Do transportation network companies decrease or increase congestion? Science Advances, 5(5), eaau2670. 

Federal Highway Administration. (2023, June 16). Pedestrian & bicycle safety. [Web page and portal]. 

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. (2020). Large truck and bus crash facts 2018 (Report No. FMCSA-RRA-19-018). 

Fekety, D. K., Edewaard, D. E., Stafford Sewall, A. A., & Tyrrell, R. A. (2016). Electroluminescent materials can further enhance the nighttime conspicuity of pedestrians wearing retroreflective materials. Human Factors58(7), 976-985. 

Ferenchak, N. N., & Marshall, W. E. (2019). Suppressed child pedestrian and bicycle trips as an indicator of safety: Adopting a proactive safety approach. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 124, 128-144. 

Gårder, P. E. (2004). The impact of speed and other variables on pedestrian safety in Maine. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 36(4), 533-542. 

Gary, C. S., Lakhiani, C., DeFazio, M. V., Masden, D. L., & Song, D. H. (2018). Smartphone use during ambulation and pedestrian trauma: A public health concern. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 85(6), 1092–1101.

Gates, T. J., Savolainen, P. T., Datta, T. K., & Buck, N. (2010). Effect of pedestrian safety retraining for elementary and middle school students. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2198(1), 145-151. 

Gelinne, D., Thomas, L., Lang, K., Zegeer, C., & Goughnour, E. (2017). How to develop a pedestrian and bicycle safety action plan (Report No. FHWA-SA-17-050). Federal Highway Administration.

Gonzales, E. J. (2017, January 8-12). Evaluation of a pedestrian safety outreach campaign in New Jersey using surrogate safety measures (Report No. 17-03647). Transportation Research Board 96th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.

Governors Highway Safety Association. (2023). Bicyclists, pedestrians and micromobility. [Web page]. 

Gregersen, N. P., & Nolén S. (1994). Children's road safety and the strategy of voluntary traffic safety clubs. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 26(4), 463-470. 

Hammond, J., Cherrett, T., & Waterson, B. (2014). The development of child pedestrian training in the United Kingdom 2002 – 2011: A national survey of local authorities. Journal of Transportation Safety & Security, 6(2), 117-129. 

Hatfield, J., & Murphy, S. (2007). The effects of mobile phone use on pedestrian crossing behaviour at signalized and unsignalized intersections. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(1), 197-205.

Heydari, S., Miranda-Moreno, L. F., & Liping, F. (2014). Speed limit reduction in urban areas: A before-after study using Bayesian generalized mixed linear models. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 73, 252–261. 

Holland, C., & Hill, R. (2010). Gender differences in factors predicting unsafe crossing decisions in adult pedestrians across the lifespan: A simulation study. Accident Analysis & Prevention42(4), 1097-1106. 

Hotz, G., Cohn, S. M., Castelblanco, A., Colston, S., Thomas, M., Weiss, A., Nelson, J., & Duncan, R. (2004). WalkSafe: A school-based pedestrian safety intervention program. Traffic Injury Prevention, 5(4), 382-389. 

Hotz, G., Garces de Marcilla, A., Lutfi, K., Kennedy, A., Castellon, P., & Duncan, R. (2009). The WalkSafe program: Developing and evaluating the educational component. The Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 66(3 Suppl), S3- S9. 

Hu, J., & Klinich, K. D. (2012). Toward designing pedestrian-friendly vehicles (Report No. UMTRI-2012-19). University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. 

Hu, W., & Cicchino, J. B. (2018). An examination of the increases in pedestrian motor-vehicle crash fatalities during 2009-2016. Journal of Safety Research, 67, 37–44. 

Hu, W., & Cicchino, J. B. (2020). Lowering the speed limit from 30 mph to 25 mph in Boston: Effects on vehicle speeds. Injury Prevention, 26(2), 99-102. 

Hunt, M., Harper, D. N., & Lie, C. (2011). Mind the gap: Training road users to use speed and distance when making gap-acceptance decisions. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(6), 2015-2023. 

Hunter, W. W., Thomas, L. J., & Stewart, J. R. (2001). Kill your speed: An evaluation of a rural speed enforcement program. North Carolina Governor’s Highway Safety Program. 

Injury Surveillance Workgroup 8. (2017). Consensus recommendations for pedestrian injury surveillance. Safe States Alliance.

Jacobsen, P. L., Ragland, D. R., & Komanoff, C. (2015). Safety in numbers for walkers and bicyclists: Exploring the mechanisms. Injury Prevention21(4), 217-220. 

Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy. (2015). Be Alert, Don’t Get Hurt: A pedestrian safety campaign on an urban, academic campus.

Johnsson, C., Laureshyn, A., & De Ceunynck, T. (2018). In search of surrogate safety indicators for vulnerable road users: A review of surrogate safety indicators. Transport Reviews, 38(6), 1–21. 

Johnston, B. D., Mendoza, J., Rafton, S., Gonzalez-Walker, D., & Levinger, D. (2006). Promoting physical activity and reducing child pedestrian risk: Early evaluation of a walking school bus program in central Seattle. The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery60(6), 1388-1389. 

Karsch, H. M., Hedlund, J. H., Tison, J., & Leaf, W. A. (2012). Review of studies on pedestrian and bicyclist safety, 1991-2007 (Report No. DOT HS 811 614). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Kehoe, N. P., Goughnour, E., Jackson, S., Sykes, K., Miller, S., & Blackburn, L. (2022, June). Safety in numbers: A literature review (Report No. DOT HS 813 279). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

Kim, E., Muennig, P., & Rosen, Z. (2017). Vision Zero: A toolkit for road safety in the modern era. Injury Epidemiology4(1). 

Kontou, E., McDonald, N. C., Brookshire, K., Pullen-Seufert, N., & LaJeunesse, S. (2020). U.S. active school travel in 2017: Prevalence and correlates. Preventive Medicine Reports, 17

Koo, H. S., & Huang, X. (2015). Visibility aid cycling clothing: Flashing light-emitting diode (FLED) configurations. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology27(3), 460-471. 

Kravetz, D., & Noland, R. B. (2012). Spatial analysis of income disparities in pedestrian safety in northern New Jersey: Is there an environmental justice issue? Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2320(1), 10-17. 

Kumfer, W., LaJeunesse, S., Sandt, L. S., & Thomas, L. (2019). Speed, kinetic energy, and the Safe Systems approach to safer roadways. ITE Journal, 89(4), 32–36. 

Kwan, I., & Mapstone, J. (2006). Interventions for increasing pedestrian and cyclist visibility for the prevention of death and injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews4, CD003438. 

Kwigizile, V., Boateng, R. A., Oh, J.-S., & Lariviere, K. (2016, Jan 1-14). Evaluating the effectiveness of pedestrian countdown signals on the safety of pedestrians in Michigan. TRB 95th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers. Transportation Research Board 95th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.

Leaf, W.A., & Preusser, D. F. (1999). Literature review on vehicle travel speeds and pedestrian injuries (Report No. DOT HS 809 021). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 

League of American Bicyclists. (2020). Bicycling & walking in the United States: Benchmarking progress. 

Li, H., & Graham, D. (2016, January 1-14). The effects of 20 mph zones on road casualties in London: An application of doubly robust methods. TRB 95th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers. Transportation Research Board 95th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.

Livingston, D. H., Suber, I., Snyder, D., Clancy, S. F., Passannante, M. R., & Lavery, R. F. (2011). Annual pediatric pedestrian education does not improve pedestrian behavior. Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, & Critical Care, 71(5), 1120-1125.

MacLeod, K. E., Griswold, J. B., Arnold, L. S., & Ragland, D. R. (2012). Factors associated with hit-and-run pedestrian fatalities and driver identification. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 45, 366–372. 

Martin, J.-L., & Wu, D. (2018). Pedestrian fatality and impact speed squared: Cloglog modeling from French national data. Traffic Injury Prevention, 19(1), 94–101. 

McArthur, A., Savolainen, P., & Gates, T. (2014). Spatial analysis of child pedestrian and bicycle crashes: Development of safety performance function for areas adjacent to schools. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2465(1), 57-63.

McDonald, N. (2015). Impact of Safe Routes to School programs on walking and biking [Research review]. Active Living Research.

McDonald, N. C., Steiner, R. L., Lee, C., Rhoulac Smith, T., Zhu, X., & Yang, Y. (2014). Impact of the safe routes to school program on walking and bicycling. Journal of the American Planning Association80(2), 153-167.

McGuckin, N., & Fucci, A. (2018). Summary of travel trends: 2017 National Household Travel Survey (Report No. FHWA-PL-18-019). Federal Highways Administration.

Mendoza, J. A., Watson, K., Chen, T-A., Baranowski, T., Nicklas, T. A., Uscanga, D. K., & Hanfling, M. J. (2012). Impact of a pilot walking school bus intervention on children's pedestrian safety behaviors: A pilot study. Health & Place, 18(1), 24-30.

Methorst, R., Schepers, P., Christie, N., & de Geus, B. (2017). How to define and measure pedestrian traffic deaths? Journal of Transport & Health, 7(A), 10–12.

Moening, K., Lieberman, M., & Zimmerman, S. (2016). Step by step: How to start a walking school bus at your school [Toolkit]. Safe Routes to School National Partnership.

Morris, N. L., Craig, C. M., & Van Houten, R. (2019). Evaluation of sustained enforcement, education, and engineering measures on pedestrian crossings (Report No. MN/RC 2019-09). Minnesota Department of Transportation.

Morris, N. L., Craig, C. M., & Van Houten, R. (2020). Effective interventions to reduce multiple-threat conflicts and improve pedestrian safety. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2674(5), 149-159.

Morrongiello, B. A., Corbett, M., Beer, J., & Koutsoulianos, S. (2018). A pilot randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a pedestrian training program that teaches children where and how to cross the street safely. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 43(10), 1147-1159.

Nasar, J., Hecht, P., & Wener, R. (2008). Mobile telephones, distracted attention, and pedestrian safety. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40(9), 69–75

National Center for Safe Routes to School. (n.d.). Teaching children to walk safely as they grow and develop: A guide for parents and caregivers.

National Center for Safe Routes to School. (2023). Safe Routes: National Center for Safe Routes to School. [Web page/home page]. UNC Highway Safety Research Center.

National Center for Safe Routes to School, & FHWA. (2015, September). Creating healthier generations: A look at 10 years of the Federal Safe Routes to School program.

National Center for Safe Routes to School, & Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. (2006). The walking school bus: Combining safety, fun and the walk to school

National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2022, October). Traffic safety facts 2020: A compilation of motor vehicle crash data (Report No. DOT HS 813 375). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

NCSA. (2023a, February). Non-Traffic surveillance: Fatality and injury statistics in nontraffic crashes, 2016 to 2020 (Revised) (Report No. DOT HS 813 363). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

NCSA. (2023b, May). Distracted driving in 2021 (Research Note. Report No. DOT HS 813 443). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

NCSA. (2023c, June). Pedestrians: 2021 data (Traffic Safety Facts. Report No. DOT HS 813 458). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (n.d.-c). Child pedestrian safety curriculum. [Web page and portal].

NHTSA. (n.d.-a). For English as second language (ESL) teachers and learners.

NHTSA. (n.d.-b). Pedestrian safety. [Web page and portal].

NHTSA. (2011, December 29). Stop and look and listen with Willy Whistle. YouTube.

NHTSA. (2014a, April 22). Getting here safely. YouTube.

NHTSA. (2014b). Pedestrian safety enforcement operations: A how-to guide (Report No. DOT HS 812 059).

N.C. Department of Transportation. (2019, February 5). Let’s go NC!

Nesoff, E. D., Milam, A. J., Branas, C. C., Martins, S. S., Knowlton, A. R., & Furr‐Holden, D. M. (2018). Alcohol outlets, neighborhood retail environments, and pedestrian injury risk. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research42(10), 1979-1987.

Nikitas, A., Wang, J. Y. T., & Knamiller, C. (2019). Exploring parental perceptions about school travel and walking school buses: A thematic analysis approach. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice124, 468-487.

Ortiz, N. C., Ramnarayan, M., & Mizenko, K. (2017). Distraction and road user behavior: An observational pilot study across intersections in Washington, DC. Journal of Transport & Health, 7(A), 13-22.

Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. (n.d.-c).  [Untitled web page, portal, and home page].

PBIC. (n.d.-a). Micromobility. [Web page].

PBIC. (n.d.-b). "Understanding Crashes and Safe Behaviors to Prevent Them" Video Series.

Pedestrian Safer Journey. (n.d.). Skills for safe walking for ages 5 to 18.

PedNet Coalition. (2014). PedNet Coalition’s experience with walking school buses.

PEDSAFE: Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System (n.d.) Countermeasures. [Web page and portal].

Percer, J. (2009). Child pedestrian safety education: Applying learning and developmental theories to develop safe street crossing behaviors (Report No. DOT HS 811 190). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Pérez-Martín, P., Pedrós, G., Martínez-Jiménez, P., & Varo-Martínez, M. (2018). Evaluation of a walking school bus service as an intervention for a modal shift at a primary school in Spain. Transport Policy64, 1-9.

Pierson, E., Simoiu, C., Overgoor, J., Corbett-Davies, S., Jenson, D., Shoemaker, A., Ramachandran, V., Barghouty, P., Phillips, C., Shroff, R., & Goel, S. (2020). A large-scale analysis of racial disparities in police stops across the United States. Nature Human Behaviour, 4(7), 736–745.

Pollack, K. M., Gielen, A. C., Ismail, M. N. M., Mitzner, M., Wu, M., & Links, J. M. (2014). Investigating and improving pedestrian safety in an urban environment. Injury Epidemiology1(11), 1-9.

Poole, B., Johnson, S., & Thomas, L. (2017). An overview of automated enforcement systems and their potential for improving pedestrian and bicyclist safety [Research Brief]. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center.

Preusser, D. F., Wells, J. K., Williams, A. F., & Weinstein, H. B. (2002). Pedestrian crashes in Washington, DC and Baltimore. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 34(5), 703–710.

Ragland, D. R., Pande, S., Bigham, J., & Cooper, J. F. (2014). Examining long-term impact of California Safe Routes to School Program: Ten years later. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2464(1), 86-92.

Reish, L. (2021). Comparing demographic trends in vulnerable road user fatalities and the U.S. population, 1980–2019 (Traffic Safety Facts Research Note. Report No. DOT HS 813 178). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Retting, R. (2021). Pedestrian traffic fatalities by state: 2020 preliminary data. Governors Highway Safety Association.

Rivara, F. P., Bergman, A. B., & Drake, C. (1989). Parental attitudes and practices toward children as pedestrians. Pediatrics, 84(6), 1017-1021.

Rogé, J., Ndiaye, D., Aillerie, I., Aillerie, S., Navarro, J., & Vienne, F. (2017). Mechanisms underlying cognitive conspicuity in the detection of cyclists by car drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 104, 88–95.

Rosén, E., & Sander, U. (2009). Pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed. Accident Analysis & Prevention41(3), 536-542.

Rouse, J. B., & Schwebel, D. C. (2019). Supervision of young children in parking lots: Impact on child pedestrian safety. Journal of Safety Research, 70, 201–206.

Safe Kids Worldwide. (2023). [Untitled web page/home page].

Safe Routes Partnership. (n.d.) [Untitled web page/home page].

Safe Routes Partnership & California Department of Public Health. (n.d.) Step by step: How to start a walking school bus at your school.

Safe States Alliance. (2021). Welcome to the Safe States Alliance. [Web page/home page].

Saleem, T., Lan, B., Srinivasan, R., Sandt, L. S., Blank, K., & Blank, S. A. (2018). Crash based evaluation of the Watch for Me NC program. North Carolina Department of Transportation.

Sanders, R. L., Judelman, B., & Schooley, S. (2019). Pedestrian safety relative to traffic-speed management: A synthesis of highway practice (NCHRP Synthesis 535). Transportation Research Board.  

Sandt, L. S., Brookshire, K., Heiny, S., Blank, K., & Harmon, K. J. (2020). Toward a shared understanding of pedestrian safety: An exploration of context, patterns, and impacts. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center.

Sandt, L. S., Gallagher, J., & Gelinne, D. (2016). Advancing pedestrian safety using education and enforcement efforts in pedestrian focus cities and States: North Carolina (Report No. DOT HS 812 286). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Sandt, L. S., LaJeunesse, S., Cohn, J., Pullen-Seufert, N., & Gallagher, J. (2015). Watch for Me NC: Bicycle and pedestrian safety, education, and enforcement campaign: 2014 program summary. North Carolina Department of Transportation.

Sandt, L. S., Marshall, S. W., Rodriguez, D. A., Evenson, K. R., Ennett, S. T., & Robinson, W. R. (2016). Effect of a community-based pedestrian injury prevention program on driver yielding behavior at marked crosswalks. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 93, 169–178.

Sandt, L. S., & Owens, J. M. (2017). Discussion guide for automated and connected vehicles, pedestrians, and bicyclists. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center.

Sandt, L. S., Thomas, L., Langford, K., & Nabors, D. (2015). A resident’s guide for creating safer communities for walking and biking (Report No. FHWA-SA-14-099). Federal Highway Administration.

Sandt, L. S., West, A., Harmon, K. J., Bryson, M., Gelinne, D., Cherry, C. R., Sexton, E., Shah, N., Sanders, R., Brown, C. T., Seki, S., & Clewlow, R. (2022). E-scooter safety: Issues and solutions. Transportation Research Board.  

Savolainen, P. T., Gates, T. J., & Datta, T. K. (2011). Implementation of targeted pedestrian traffic enforcement programs in an urban environment. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2265(1), 137-145.

Schneider, R. J. (2020). United States pedestrian fatality trends, 1977 to 2016. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2674(9), 1069-1083.

Schneider, R. J., Sanders, R., Proulx, F., & Moayyed, H. (2021). United States fatal pedestrian crash hot spot locations and characteristics. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 14(1), 1–23.

Schneider, R. J., & Stefanich, J. (2016). Application of the location–movement classification method for pedestrian and bicycle crash typing. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2601(1), 72–83.

Schneider, R. J., Vargo, J., & Sanatizadeh, A. (2017). Comparison of US metropolitan region pedestrian and bicyclist fatality rates. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 106, 82–98.

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