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Baer, J. D., Ayotte, K., & Baldi, S. (2010). Evaluation of state motorcycle safety programs (Report No. DOT HS 811 269). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Baer, J. D., Baldi, S., & Cook, A. L. (2005). Promising practices in motorcycle rider education and licensing (Report No. DOT HS 809 922). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Baer, J. D., Cook, A. L., & Baldi, S. (2005). Motorcycle rider education and licensing: A review of programs and practices (Report No. DOT HS 809 852). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Baldock, M. R., Kloeden, C., Lydon, M., Raftery, S., Grigo, J., & Ponte, G. (2012). The use of protective clothing by motorcyclists in Victoria: Evaluation of the Community Policing and Education Program. Proceedings of the 2012 ACRS National Conference - A Safe System: Expanding the Research: 9-10 August, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 2012.

Becker, L. R., McKnight, A. S., Nelkin, V. S., & Piper, D. L. (2003). Drinking, riding, and prevention: A focus group study (Report No. DOT HS 809 490). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Boele, M., & de Craen, S. (2014). Evaluation advanced training course for motorcyclists: Motorcyclists ride safer after training (R-2014-22E; p. 11p). SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research.

Braver, E. R., Kufera, J. A., Volpini, K. D., Lawpoolsri, S., Joyce, J. J., Alexander, M. T., & Ellison-Potter, P. (2007). Persuasion and licensure: A randomized controlled intervention trial to increase licensure rates among Maryland motorcycle owners. Traffic Injury Prevention, 8(1), 39-46.

Brewer, B. L., Diehl, A. H., Johnson, L. S., Salomone, J. P., Wilson, K. L., Atallah, H. Y., Feliciano, D. V., & Rozycki, G. S. (2013). Choice of motorcycle helmet makes a difference: A prospective observational study. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 75(1), 88-91.

Brooks, E., Naud, S., & Shapiro, S. (2010). Are youth-only motorcycle helmet laws better than none at all? American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 31(2), 125-129.

Cavallo, V., & Pinto, M. (2012). Are car daytime running lights detrimental to motorcycle conspicuity? Accident Analysis & Prevention49, 78-85.

Clarke, D. D., Ward, P., Bartle, C., & Truman, W. (2007). The role of motorcyclist and other driver behaviour in two types of serious accident in the UK. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(5), 974-981.

Coben, J. H., Steiner, C. A., & Miller, T. R. (2007). Characteristics of motorcycle-related hospitalizations: Comparing states with different helmet laws. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(1), 190-196.

Compton, R., Vegega, M., & Smither, D. (2009) Drug-impaired driving: Understanding the problem and ways to reduce it: A Report to Congress (Report No. HS 811 268). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Cummings, P., Rivara, F. P., Olson, C. M., & Smith, K. M. (2006). Changes in traffic crash mortality rates attributed to use of alcohol, or lack of a seat belt, air bag, motorcycle helmet, or bicycle helmet, United States, 1982-2001. Injury Prevention, 12(3), 148-154.

de Rome, L. (2019). Could wearing motorcycle protective clothing compromise rider safety in hot weather? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 128, 240-247.

de Rome, L., & Brown, J. (2016, September 6-8). Motorcycle protective clothing: Impact on cognitive performance and mood when worn in hot conditions. Proceedings of the 2016 Australasian Road Safety Conference, Canberra, Australia. Australasian Road Safety Conference, 2016, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

de Rome, L., Ivers, R., Fitzharris, M., Du, W., Haworth, N., Heritier, S., & Richardson, D. (2011). Motorcycle protective clothing: Protection from injury or just the weather? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(6), 1893-1900.

de Rome, L., Ivers, R., Fitzharris, M., Haworth, N., Heritier, S., & Richardson, D. (2012). Effectiveness of motorcycle protective clothing: Riders’ health outcomes in the six months following a crash. Injury, 43(2), 2035-2015.

de Rome, L., Troynikov, O., Taylor, N., & Brown, J. (2016). Motorcycle protective clothing: Heat discomfort and physiological strain. NRMA ACT Road Safety Trust.

Derrick, A. J. & Faucher, L. D. (2009). Motorcycle helmets and rider safety: A legislative crisis. Journal of Public Health Policy, 30(2), 226-242.

Deuterman, W. (2004). Motorcycle helmet effectiveness revisited (Report No. DOT HS 809 715). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

DuPree, C., Pinnola, A., Gibson, S., Muertos, K., Davis, J. M., & Sciarretta, J. D. (2019). Can planned traffic patterns improve survival among the injured during mass casualty motorcycle rallies? Journal of Surgical Research, 234, 262-268.

Elliott, M. A., Baughan, C. J., & Sexton, B. F. (2007). Errors and violations in relation to motorcyclists’ crash risk. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(3), 491-499.

Federal Highway Administration. (2003-2023). Highway statistics. Table VM-1.

FHWA. (2023, April 4). Motorcycle safety. [Web page and portal].

Fell, J. C., Ramirez, A., McKnight, A. S., Yao, J., & Auld-Owens, A. (2017). Changes to Puerto Rico’s motorcycle rider law (Report No. DOT HS 812 397). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

General Accounting Office. (1991). Highway safety: Motorcycle helmet laws save lives and reduce costs to society (GAO/RCED 91 170).

Guide to Community Preventive Services. (2013). Motor vehicle-related injury prevention: Use of motorcycle helmets, universal helmet laws.

Hanchulak, D., & Robinson, B. (2009). Guidelines for motorcycle operator licensing (Report No. DOT HS 811 141). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Haworth, N. L., Rowden, P. J., & Schramm, A. J. (2010). A preliminary examination of the effects of changes in motorcycle licensing in Queensland. In Proceedings of the 2010 Australasian Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference. Australasian Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference, 31 August-3 September 2010, National Convention Centre, Canberra.

Hedlund, J., Shults, R. A., & Compton, R. (2003). What we know, what we don’t know, and what we need to know about graduated driver licensing. Journal of Safety Research, 34(1), 107-115.

Hedlund, J., Shults, R. A., & Compton, R. (2006). Graduated driver licensing and teenage driver research in 2006. Journal of Safety Research, 37(2), 107-121.

Highway Loss Data Institute. (2013). The effects of Michigan’s weakened motorcycle helmet use law on insurance losses. HLDI Bulletin, 30(9).

Houston, D. J. (2007). Are helmet laws protecting young motorcyclists? Journal of Safety Research, 38(3), 329-336.

Houston, D. J., & Richardson, L. E. (2008). Motorcyclist fatality rates and mandatory helmet-use laws. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40(1), 200-208.

Hurt, H. H., Ouellet, J. V., & Thom, D. R. (1981). Motorcycle accident cause factors and identification of countermeasures, Volume 1: Technical report (Report No. DOT HS 805 862). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. (2023a). Motorcycles and ATVs—Fatality facts 2021.

IIHS. (2021b). Motorcycles, May 2019.

Jones, M. M., & Bayer, R. (2007). Paternalism & its discontents: Motorcycle helmet laws, libertarian values, and public health. American Journal of Public Health, 97(2), 208-217.

Kardamanidis, K., Martiniuk, A., Ivers, R. Q., Stevenson, M.R., & Thistlethwaite, K. (2010). Motorcycle rider training for the prevention of road traffic crashes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD005240.

Kelley-Baker, T., Berning, A., Ramirez, A., Lacey, J. H., Carr, K., Waehrer, G., Moore, C., Pell, K., Yao, J., & Compton, R. (2017). 2013-2014 National roadside study of alcohol and drug use by drivers: Drug results (Report No. DOT HS 812 411). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Limrick, K. J. & Masten, S. V. (2013). Evaluation of a contact letter to increase licensure among improperly licensed California motorcycle owners (Report No. CAL-DMV-RSS-13-241). California Office of Traffic Safety.

Liu, B. C., Ivers, R., Norton, R., Boufous, S. Blows, S., & Lo, S. K. (2008). Helmets for preventing injury in motorcycle riders. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1. Art No.: CD004333.

Marques, P. R., & McKnight, A. S. (2017). Examination of the feasibility of alcohol interlocks for motorcycles (Report No. DOT HS 812 423). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

McKnight, A. S., Billheimer, J. W., & Tippetts, S. (2013). An examination of Washington state’s vehicle impoundment law for motorcycle endorsements (Report No. DOT HS 811 696). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Motorcycle Helmets, 49 CFR Part 571 (2011). Federal Register, 76(93), 28132–28163.

Motorcycle Safety Foundation. (2022). Cycle safety information - 2022.

MSF. (2019). State motorcycle rider education programs – 2019.

MSF. (2020). State on-highway motorcycle equipment requirements.

National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2022). Motorcycle helmet use in 2021 – Overall results (Traffic Safety Facts Research Note. Report No. DOT HS 813 270). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

NCSA. (2023). Motorcycles: 2021 data (Report No. DOT HS 813 466). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (n.d.-a). Data visualization – Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). [Web page and portal].

NHTSA. (n.d.-b). High visibility enforcement (HVE) toolkit. [Web page and portal].

NHTSA. (1996). Do motorcycle helmets interfere with the vision and hearing of riders? (Technology Transfer Series No. 127; Traffic Tech).

NHTSA. (1998; 2008). National automotive sampling system (NASS) – General estimates system (GES) [Custom data set analysis.].

NHTSA. (2000). National agenda for motorcycle safety (Report No. DOT HS 809 156).

NHTSA. (2003). The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration motorcycle safety program (Report No. DOT HS 809 539).

NHTSA. (2006). National agenda for motorcycle safety: Implementation guide (Report No. DOT HS 810 680).

NHTSA. (2011). Traffic safety facts - 2009: Motorcycles (Report No. DOT HS 811 389).

NHTSA. (2013a). Prioritized recommendations of the National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety (Report No. DOT HS 811 789).

NHTSA. (2013b). Detection of DWI motorcyclists (Report No. DOT HS 807 856).

NHTSA. (2014). Motorcyclists: The choices you make are more important than you think (Report No. DOT HS 812 036). [Safety in Numbers web page.]

NHTSA. (2019a). Motorcycle safety 5-year plan (Report No. DOT HS 812 488).

NHTSA. (2019b, September, revised). How to identify unsafe motorcycle helmets (Brochure No. DOT HS 807 880)

Office of Behavioral Safety Research. (2021, October). Continuation of research on traffic safety during the COVID-19 public health emergency: January – June 2021 (Traffic Safety Facts Research Note. Report No. DOT HS 813 210). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Olsen, C. S., Thomas, A. M., Singleton, M., Gaichas, A. M., Smith, T. J., Smith, G. A., Peng, J., Bauer, M. J., Qu, M., Yeager, D., Kerns, T., Burch, C., & Cook, L. J. (2016). Motorcycle helmet effectiveness in reducing head, face and brain injuries by state and helmet law. Injury Epidemiology, 3(1), 8.

Page, P. S., Wei, Z., & Brooks, N. P. (2018). Motorcycle helmets and cervical spine injuries: A 5-year experience at a Level 1 trauma center. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, 28(6), 607-611.

Patel, P. B., Staley, C. A., Runner, R., Mehta, S., & Schenker, M. L. (2019). Unhelmeted motorcycle riders have increased injury burden: A need to revisit universal helmet laws. Journal of Surgical Research, 242, 177-182.

Peng, Y., & Community Preventive Services Task Force. (2017). Motorcycle helmet laws prevent injury and save lives: Recommendation of the community preventive services task force. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 52(6), 817–819.

Peng, Y., Vaidya, N., Finnie, R., Reynolds, J., Dumitru, C., Njie, G., Elder, R., Ivers, R., Sakashita, C., Shults, R. A., Sleet, D. A., Compton, R. P., & Community Preventive Services Task Force. (2017). Universal motorcycle helmet laws to reduce injuries: A community guide systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine52(6), 820-832.

Philip, A. F., Fangman, W., Liao, J., Lilienthal, M., & Choi, K. (2013). Helmets prevent motorcycle injuries with significant economic benefits. Traffic Injury Prevention, 14(5), 496-500.

Potts, I., Garets, S., Smith, T., Pfefer, R., Neuman, T. R., Slack, K. L., Hardy, K. K., & Nichols, J. (2008). Guidance for implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Volume 22: A guide for addressing collisions involving motorcycles (NCHRP Report 500). Transportation Research Board.  

Pour-Rouholamin, M., & Jalayer, M. (2016). Analyzing the severity of motorcycle crashes in North Carolina using highway safety information systems data. ITE Journal, 86(10), 45-49.

Ramirez, A, Berning, A., Kelley-Baker, T., Lacey, J. H., Yao, J., Tippetts, A. S., Scherer, M., Carr, K., Pell, K., & Compton, R. (2016). 2013–2014 national roadside study of alcohol and drug use by drivers: Alcohol results (Report No. DOT HS 812 362). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Reeder, A. I., Alsop, J. C., Langley, J. D., & Wagenaar, A. C. (1999). An evaluation of the general effect of the New Zealand graduated driver licensing system on motorcycle traffic crash hospitalisations. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 31(6), 651-661.

Rice, T. M., Troszak, L., Erhardt, T., Trent, R. B., & Zhu, M. (2017). Novelty helmet use and motorcycle rider fatality. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 103, 123-128.

Senserrick, T., McRae, D., Wallace, P., de Rome, L., Rees, P., & Williamson, A. (2017). Enhancing higher-order skills education and assessment in a graduated motorcycle licensing system. Safety, 3(2), 14.

Stuster, J. W. (1993). The detection of DWI motorcyclists (Report No. DOT HS 807 839). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Stutts, J., Knipling, Pfefer, R., Neuman, T. R., Slack, & Hardy, K. K. (2005). A guide for reducing crashes involving drowsy and distracted drivers: Volume 14: Guidance for implementation of the AASHTO strategic highway safety plan (NCHRP Report 500 series report). Transportation Research Board.  

Teoh, E. R. (2013). Effects of antilock braking systems on motorcycle fatal crash rates: An update. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS).

Teoh, E. R. (2018). Motorcycle crashes potentially preventable by three crash avoidance technologies on passenger vehicles. Traffic Injury Prevention, 19(5), 513-517.

Teoh, E. R. (2021). Motorcycles registered in the United States, 2002-2021. IIHS.

Teoh, E. R., & Campbell, M. (2010). Role of motorcycle type in fatal motorcycle crashesJournal of Safety Research, 41(6), 507-512.

Thomas, F. D., Berning, A., Darrah, J., Graham, L. A., Blomberg, R. D., Griggs, C., Crandall, M., Schulman, C., Kozar, R., Neavyn, M., Cunningham, K. W., Ehsani, J., Fell, J. C., Whitehill, J., Babu, K., Lai, J. S., and Rayner, M. (2020). Drug and alcohol prevalence in seriously and fatally injured road users before and during the COVID-19 public health emergency (Report No. DOT HS 813 018). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Ulmer, R. G., & Northrup, V. S. (2005). Evaluation of the repeal of the all-rider motorcycle helmet law in Florida (Report No. DOT HS 809 849). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Ulmer, R. G., & Preusser, D. F. (2003). Evaluation of the repeal of motorcycle helmet laws in Kentucky and Louisiana (Report No. DOT HS 809 530). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Wells, S., Mullin, B., Norton, R., Langley, J., Connor, J., Lay-Yee, R., & Jackson, R. (2004). Motorcycle rider conspicuity and crash-related injury: Case-control study. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 328(7444), 857.

Wentzel, J., Taylor, R., Zino, C., Avery, M., Muertos, K., & Sciarretta, J. D. (2020). Moped and motorcycle trauma: Injury prevention and an opportunity to intervene. The American Surgeon, 86(3), e113-e115.

Williams, A. F., Tefft, B. C., & Grabowski, J. G. (2012). Graduated driver licensing research, 2010-present. Journal of Safety Research, 43(3), 195-203.

Windwalker Corporation & Highway Safety Services, LLC. (2011) Model standards for entry-level motorcycle rider training (Report No. DOT HS 811 503). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.