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AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. (2021). 2020 Traffic safety culture index.

Aghaei, A. S., Donmez, B., Liu, C. C., He, D., Liu, G., Plataniotis, K. N., Chen, H.-Y. W., & Sojoudi, Z. (2016). Smart driver monitoring: When signal processing meets human factors: in the driver’s seat. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine33(6), 35-48.

Albert, G., & Lotan, T. (2019). Exploring the impact of “soft blocking” on smartphone usage of young drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 125, 56-62.

Arnold, L. S., Benson, A. J., Tefft, B. C., Barragan, D., Jin, L., Kolek, S., & Horrey, W. J. (2019). Effectiveness of distracted driving countermeasures: A review of the literature (Research Brief). AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Bloch, S., Shinkle, D., & Bates, J. (2021, July). Traffic safety trends | State legislative action 2020. National Conference of State Legislatures.

Bummara, V., & Choi, J. (2015). Exploring the effectiveness of distracted driving PSA (public service announcement). Advances in Journalism and Communication, 3(04), 71–78.

Caird, J. K., Simmons, S. M., Wiley, K., Johnston, K. A., & Horrey, W. J. (2018). Does talking on a cell phone, with a passenger, or dialing affect driving performance? An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies. Human Factors, 60(1), 101-133.

Carney, C., Harland, K. K., & McGehee, D. V. (2018). Examining teen driver crashes and the prevalence of distraction: Recent trends, 2007–2015. Journal of Safety Research64, 21-27.

Carney, C., McGehee, D., Harland, K., Weiss, M., & Raby, M. (2015). Using naturalistic driving data to assess the prevalence of environmental factors and driver behaviors in teen driver crashes. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Chaudhary, N. K., Casanova-Powell, T. D., Cosgrove, L., Reagan, I., & Williams, A. (2014, March). Evaluation of NHTSA distracted driving demonstration projects in Connecticut and New York (Report No. DOT HS 811 635). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Chaudhary, N. K., Connolly, J., Tison, J., Solomon, M., & Elliott, K. (2015, January). Evaluation of NHTSA distracted driving high-visibility enforcement demonstration projects in California and Delaware (Report No. DOT HS 812 108). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Chaudhary, N. K., Williams, A. F., & Preusser, D. (2018). Evaluation of Connecticut’s 2008 graduated driver licensing upgrades (Paper No. 18-02614). Transportation Research Board 97th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.

Cosgrove, L., Chaudhary, N., & Reagan, I. (2011). Four high-visibility enforcement demonstration waves in Connecticut and New York reduce hand-held phone use (Research Note DOT HS 811 845, Traffic Safety Facts). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Dingus, T. A., Guo, F., Lee, S., Antin, J. F., Perez, M., Buchanan-King, M., & Hankey, J. (2016). Driver crash risk factors and prevalence evaluation using naturalistic driving data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences113(10), 2636-2641.

Donmez, B., Boyle, L. N., & Lee, J. D. (2007). Safety implications of providing real-time feedback to distracted drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39(3), 581-590.

Drews, F. A., Yazdani, H., Godfrey, C. N., Cooper, J. M., & Strayer, D. L. (2009). Text messaging during simulated driving. Human Factors, 51(5), 762-770.

Drivers of CMVs: Restricting the Use of Cellular Phones, 76 C.F.R § 49 (2011)

Ehsani, J. P., Ionides, E., Klauer, S. G., Perlus, J. G., & Gee, B. T. (2016). Effectiveness of cell phone restrictions for young drivers: Review of the evidence. Transportation Research Record: The Journal of the Transportation Research Board2602(1), 35–42. 

Ferdinand, A. O., Aftab, A., & Akinlotan, M. A. (2019). Texting-while-driving bans and motor vehicle crash–related emergency department visits in 16 US states: 2007–2014. American Journal of Public Health, 109(5), 748-754.

Foss, R. D., & Goodwin, A. H. (2014). Distracted driver behaviors and distracting conditions among adolescent drivers: Findings from a naturalistic driving study. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 54(5 Suppl.), S50-60.

Foss, R. D., Goodwin, A. H., McCartt, A. T., & Hellinga, L. A. (2009). Short-term effects of a teenage driver cell phone restriction. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 41(3), 419-424.

 Goodwin, A. H., Foss, R. D., Sohn, J., & Mayhew, D. R. (2007). A guide for reducing collisions involving young drivers (NCHRP Report 500; Guidance for implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Volume 19). Transportation Research Board.

Goodwin, A. H., O’Brien, N. P., & Foss, R. D. (2012). Effect of North Carolina’s restriction on teenage driver cell phone use two years after implementation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 48, 363-367.

Governors Highway Safety Association. (2013). Distracted driving: Survey of the States.  

GHSA. (2021). Teen and novice drivers.

Guarino, J. (2013). Survey reveals public open to ban on hand-held cell phone use and texting (BTS Special Report). Research and Innovative Technology Administration.

Hammond Olson, R. L., Soccolich, S. A., & Hanowski, R. J. (2019). The impact of driver distraction in tractor-trailers and motorcoach buses. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 126, 10-16.

Hedlund, J., & Compton, R. (2005). Graduated driver licensing research in 2004 and 2005. Journal of Safety Research, 36(2), 109-119.

HLDI. (2009). Hand-held cellphone laws and collision claim frequencies. Highway Loss Data Institute Bulletin, 26(17).

HLDI. (20112010). Texting laws and collision claim frequencies. Highway Loss Data Institute Bulletin, 27(11).

Horrey, W. J., Lesch, M. F., & Garabet, A. (2008). Assessing the awareness of performance decrements in distracted drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40(2), 675-682.

Hosking, S. G., Young, K. L., & Regan, M. A. (2009). The effects of text messaging on young drivers. Human Factors, 51(4), 582-592.

IIHS. (2012). They’re working: Insurance claims data show which new technologies are preventing crashes. Status Report, Special Issue: Crash Avoidance, 47(5).

IIHS. (2014, October 24). Technology that pays attention to the road when drivers don’t. Status Report, Eyes on the road, Searching for answers to the problem of distracted driving, 49(8).

IIHS. (2021a). Teenagers.

IIHS. (2021b). Cellphone laws

Ishigami, Y., & Klein, R. M. (2009). Is a hands-free phone safer than a handheld phone? Journal of Safety Research, 40(2), 157-164.

Keating, D. P. (2007). Understanding adolescent development: Implications for driving safety. Journal of Safety Research, 38(2), 147-157.

Klauer, S. G., Guo, F., Simons-Morton, B. G., Ouimet, M. C., Lee, S. E., & Dingus, T. A. (2014). Distracted driving and risk of road crashes among novice and experienced drivers. The New England Journal of Medicine, 370, 54-59.

Koesdwiady, A., Soua, R., Karray, F., & Kamel, M. S. (2016). Recent trends in driver safety monitoring systems: State of the art and challenges. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology66(6), 4550-4563.

Kuo, J., Lenné, M. G., Mulhall, M., Sletten, T., Anderson, C., Howard, M., Rajaratnam, S., Magee, M., & Collins, A. (2019). Continuous monitoring of visual distraction and drowsiness in shift-workers during naturalistic driving. Safety Science, 119, 112-116.

Lansdown, T. C. (2002). Individual differences during driver secondary task performance: Verbal protocol and visual allocation findings. Accident Analysis & Prevention¸ 34(5), 655-662.

Lemaster-Sandbank, L., Sinclair, A., & Vegega, M. (2020). Distracted driving enforcement demonstrations: Lessons learned (Report No. DOT HS 812 505). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Lennon, R., Rentfro, R., & O’Leary, B. (2010). Social marketing and distracted driving behaviors among young adults: The effectiveness of fear appeals. Academy of Marketing Studies, 14(2), 95–113.

Lissy, K., Cohen, J., Park, M., & Graham, J. D. (2000). Cellular phones and driving: Weighing the risks and benefits. Risk in Perspective8(6), 1-6.

Liu, C., Lu, C., Wang, S., Sharma, A., & Shaw, J. (2019). A longitudinal analysis of the effectiveness of California’s ban on cellphone use while driving. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 124, 456-467.

Maher, A., & Ott, P. (2013). Effects of New Jersey’s cell phone and text ban (No. CUNY-49111-19-23).

Masten, S. V., Foss, R. D., & Marshall, S. W. (2013). Graduated driver licensing program component calibrations and their association with fatal crash involvement. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 57, 105-113.

McCartt, A. T., Hellinga, L. A., & Braitman, K. A. (2006). Cell phones and driving: Review of research. Traffic Injury Prevention, 7(2), 89-106.

McCartt, A. T., Kidd, D. G., & Teoh, E. R. (2014). Driver cellphone and texting bans in the United States: evidence of effectiveness. Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine / Annual Scientific Conference. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Scientific Conference58, 99–114.

McCartt, A. T., & Teoh, E. R. (2015). Tracking progress in teenage driver crash risk in the United States since the advent of graduated driver licensing programs. Journal of Safety Research, 53, 1-9.

McCartt, A. T., Teoh, E. R., Fields, M., Braitman, K. A., & Hellinga, L. A. (2010). Graduated licensing laws and fatal crashes of teenage drivers: A national study. Traffic Injury Prevention, 11(3), 240-248.

McEvoy, S. P. Stevenson, M. R., McCartt, A. T., Woodward, M., Haworth, C., Palamara, P., & Cercarelli, R. (2005). Role of mobile phones in motor vehicle crashes resulting in hospital attendance: A case-crossover study. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 331(7514), 428-434.

MMUCC. (2017). MMUCC Guideline: Model minimum uniform crash criteria (Report No. DOT HS 812 433). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2022). Driver electronic device use in 2021 (Research Note. Report No. DOT HS 813 357). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

NCSA. (2023). Distracted driving in 2021 (Research Note. DOT HS 813 443). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

National Distracted Driving Coalition. (2022). Communication devices workplace policies. The National Distracted Driving Coalition (NDDC).

NHTSA. (n.d.-b). Connect to disconnect 2022: Event planning guide. [Web page and portal].

NHTSA. (n.d.-a). Distracted driving. [Web page and portal].

NHTSA. (2012). Blueprint for ending distracted driving (Report No. DOT HS 811 629).  

National Safety Council. (2023). Safe driving kit.

National Traffic Law Center. (2017). Investigation and prosecution of distracted driving cases (Report No. DOT HS 812 407). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

National Safety Council. (2014a). Owens Corning receives 2014 Green Cross for Safety medal from the National Safety Council.

NSC. (2014b). Employer ban cell phone policy: A case study - Owens Corning. National Safety Council.

NSC. (2015). Employer ban cell phone policy: A case study - Cummins. National Safety Council. 

Nevin, P. E., Blanar, L., Kirk, A. P., Freedheim, A., Kaufman, R., Hitchcock, L., Maeser, J. D., & Ebel, B. E. (2017). “I wasn’t texting; I was just reading an email …”: a qualitative study of distracted driving enforcement in Washington State. Injury Prevention, 23(3), 165–170.

Network of Employers for Traffic Safety. (2017). Drive Safely Work Week distracted driving module.

New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety & Division of Highway Traffic Safety. (n.d.) Sample cell phone use policy for businesses.

Oviedo-Trespalacios, O., Williamson, A., & King, M. (2019). User preferences and design recommendations for voluntary smartphone applications to prevent distracted driving. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 64, 47-57.

Owens, J. M., Dingus, T. A., Guo, F., Fang, Y., Perez, M., & McClafferty, J. (2018). Crash risk of cell phone use while driving: A case-crossover analysis of naturalistic driving data. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Persaud, B., Lyon, C., Eccles, K., & Soika, J. (2016). Safety effectiveness of centerline plus shoulder rumble strips on two-lane rural roads. Journal of Transportation Engineering142(5).

Ranney, T. (2008, April). Driver distraction: A review of the current state-of-knowledge (Report No. DOT HS 810 787).

Reagan, I. J., & Cicchino, J. B. (2020). Do not disturb while driving – Use of cellphone blockers among adult drivers. Safety Science, 128, 104753.

Redelmeier, D. A., & Tibshirani, R. J. (1997). Association between cellular-telephone calls and motor vehicle collisions. The New England Journal of Medicine, 336, 453-458.

Restrictions on Railroad Operating Employees’ Use of Cellular Telephones and Other Electronic Devices, 75 C.F.R § 49 (2010).

Retting, R., Sprattler, K., Rothenberg, H., & Sexton, T. (2017). Evaluating the enforceability of texting laws: Strategies tested in Connecticut and Massachusetts (Report DOT HS 812 367). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Robertson, R. D., Brown, S., Graver, J., Trainor, D., Banz, B., & Kearney, J. L. (2022, December). Distracted driving prevalence data: Sources, challenges & technological solutions. National Distracted Driving Coalition.

Rudisill, T. M., Smith, G., Chu, H., & Zhu, M. (2018). Cellphone legislation and self-reported behaviors among subgroups of adolescent U.S. drivers. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(5), 618–625.

Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Strayer, D. L., Behrends, A. A., Ward, N., & Watson, J. M. (2016). Why drivers use cell phones and support legislation to restrict this practice. Accident Analysis and Prevention92, 22-33.

Schick, A., Vegega, M., & Chaudhary, N. (2014). Distracted driving high-visibility enforcement demonstrations in California and Delaware (Report No. DOT HS 811 993; Traffic Tech Technology Transfer Series). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Schroeder, P., Wilbur, M., & Peña, R. (2018). National survey on distracted driving attitudes and behaviors – 2015 (Report No. DOT HS 812 461). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Scopatz, R. A., & Zhou, Y. (2016). Effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety: A literature review (Report No. DOT HS 812 256). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Strayer, D. L., Cooper, J. M., Goethe, R. M., McCarty, M. M., Getty, D., & Biondi, F. (2017). Visual and cognitive demands of using in-vehicle infotainment systems. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Sundfør, H. B., Sagberg, F., & Høye, A. (2019). Inattention and distraction in fatal road crashes–Results from in-depth crash investigations in Norway. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 125, 152-157.

Texas Department of Insurance, Division of Workers’ Compensation. (n.d.). Driving and using cell phones.

U.S. DOT. (n.d.). Distracted driving program management. [Online course].

Vegega, M., Jones, B., & Monk, C. (2013). Understanding the effects of distracted driving and developing strategies to reduce resulting deaths and injuries: A Report to Congress (Report No. DOT HS 812 053). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Visual-manual NHTSA driver distraction guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices; Notice. (2013). Federal Register, 78(81), 24818–24890.

Williams, A. F. (2007a). Contribution of the components of graduated licensing to crash reductions. Journal of Safety Research, 38(2), 177-184.

Williams, A. F. (2007b). Public information and education in the promotion of highway safety (Research Results Digest 322). Transportation Research Board.

Zhu, M., Zhao, S., & Long, D. L. (2016). The association of graduated driver licensing with nondriver transport-related injuries among adolescents. Epidemiology, 27(5), 620-623.