American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (2010). Highway safety manual, 1st Ed. www.highwaysafetymanual.org
AASHTO. (2012) Guide for the development of bicycle facilities, 4th edition. https://njdotlocalaidrc.com/perch/resources/aashto-gbf-4-2012-bicycle.pdfAckery, A. D., McLellan, B. A., & Redelmeier, D. A. (2012). Bicyclist deaths and striking vehicles in the USA. Injury Prevention, 18, 22-26.
Active Living Research. (2015). Research review: Impact of Safe Routes to School programs on walking and biking. http://activelivingresearch.org/sites/default/files/ALR_Review_SRTS_May2015.pdf
Attewell, R. G., Glase, K., & McFadden, M. (2001). Bicycle helmet efficacy: A meta-analysis. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 33, 345-352.
Bambach, M. R., Mitchella, R. J., Grzebieta, R. H., & Olivier, J. (2013). The effectiveness of helmets in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles: A case-control study. Accident Analysis & Prevention 53, 78-88.
Bhatia, R., & Wier, M. (2011). “Safety in Numbers” re-examined: Can we make valid or practical inferences from available evidence? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(1), 235-240.
Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute. (2019a). All-ages helmet laws for bicycle riders. www.helmets.org/allageshelmetlaws.htm
BHSI. (2019b). Bicycle helmet laws. www.helmets.org/mandator.htm
Bonander, C., Nilson, F., & Andersson, R. (2014). The effect of the Swedish bicycle helmet law for children: an interrupted time series study. Journal of Safety Research, 51, 15-22.
Boufous, S., de Rome, L., Senserrick, T., & Ivers, R. (2012). Risk Factors for severe injury in cyclists involved in traffic crashes in Victoria. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 49, 404-409.
Brookshire, K., Sandt, L., Sundstrom, C., Thomas, L., & Blomberg, R. (2016, April). Advancing pedestrian and bicyclist safety: A primer for highway safety professionals (Report No. DOT HS 812 258). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1982
Buehler, R. (2018). A First look: Trends in walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2017. National Household Travel Survey Workshop 2018. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC
Carlson, K., Murphy, B., Ermagun, A., Levinson, D. M., & Owen, A. (2018). Safety in numbers: Pedestrian and bicyclist activity and safety in Minneapolis. https://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/handle/11299/194707/CTS%2018-05.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Costa, M., Bonetti, L., Bellelli, M., Lantieri, C., Vignali, V., & Simone, A. (2017). Reflective tape applied to bicycle frame and conspicuity enhancement at night. Human Factors, 59(3), 485-500.
Crocker, P., King, B., Cooper, H., & Milling, T. J. (2012). Self-reported alcohol use is an independent risk factor for head and brain injury among cyclists but does not confound helmets' protective effect. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 43, 244-250.
Davison, C., Torunian, M., Walsh, P., Thompson, W., McFaull, S., & Pickett, W. (2013). Bicycle helmet use and bicycling-related injury among young Canadians: An equity analysis. International Journal for Equity in Health, 12, 48.
Debnath, A. K., Haworth, N., Schramm, A., & Williamson, A. (2016). Observational study of compliance with Queensland bicycle helmet laws. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 97, 146-152.
Dennis, J., Potter, B., Ramsay, T., & Zarychanski, R. (2010). The effects of provincial bicycle helmet legislation on helmet use and bicycle ridership in Canada. Injury Prevention, 16, 219-224.
Dennis, J., Ramsay, T., Turgeon, A. F., & Zarychanski, R. (2013). Helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries in Canadian provinces and territories: Interrupted time series analysis. BMJ British Medical Journal Online, 346, 2674.
DiMaggio, C., Frangos, S., & Li, G. (2016). National Safe Routes to School program and risk of school-age pedestrian and bicyclist injury. Annals of Epidemiology, 26(6), 412-417.
Elvik, R. (2011). Publication bias and time-trend bias in meta-analysis of bicycle helmet efficacy: A re-analysis of Attewell, Glase and McFadden, 2001. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43, 1245-1251.
Elvik, R., & Bjørnskau, T. (2017). Safety-in-numbers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence. Safety Science, 92, 274-282.
Federal Highway Administration. (1990). 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey.
FHWA. (1995). 1995 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey.
FHWA. (2001). 2001 National Household Travel Survey.
FHWA. (2010). Review – Public policies for pedestrian and bicyclist safety and mobility: An implementation project of the pedestrian and bicyclist safety and mobility international scan (Report No. FHWA-PL-10-028). www.pedbikeinfo.org/cms/downloads/PBSPolicyReview.pdf
FHWA (2015). Creating healthier generations: A look at the 10 years of Federal Safe Routes to School program. www.pedbikeinfo.org/pdf/SRTSfederal_CreatingHealthierGenerations.pdf
Fischer, P. (2017). A right to the road: Understanding & addressing bicyclist safety. GHSA. www.ghsa.org/resources/bicyclist-safety2017
Fischer, E. L., Rousseau, G. K., Turner, S. M., Blais, E. J., Engelhart, C. L., Henderson, D. R., Kaplan, J. A., Keller, V. M., Mackay, J. D., Tobias, P. A., Wigle, D. E., & Zegeer, C. V. (2010). Pedestrian and bicyclist safety and mobility in Europe (Report No. FHWA-PL-10-010). Federal Highway Administration. www.bv.transports.gouv.qc.ca/mono/1023711.pdf
Fyhri, A., Sundfør, H. B., Bjørnskau, T., & Laureshyn, A. (2016). Safety in numbers for cyclists—Conclusions from a multidisciplinary study of seasonal change in interplay and conflicts. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 105, 124-133.
Geyer, J., Raford, N., Ragland, D., & Pham, T. (2006). The continuing debate about Safety in Numbers—Data from Oakland, CA. Safe Transportation Research & Education Center, Institute of Transportation Studies.
Grant, D., & Rutner, S. M. (2004). The effect of bicycle helmet legislation on bicycling fatalities. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 23, 595-611.
Hagel, B. E., Romanow, N. T. R., Morgunov, N., Embree, T., Couperthwaite, A. B., Voaklander, D., & Rowe, B. H. (2014). The relationship between visibility aid use and motor vehicle related injuries among bicyclists presenting to emergency departments. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 65, 85-96.
Hamann, C., Peek-Asa, C., Lynch, C. F., Ramirez, M., & Torner, J. (2013). Burden of hospitalizations for bicycling injuries by motor vehicle involvement: United States, 2002 to 2009. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 75, 870-876.
Hoelscher, D., Ory, M., Dowdy, D., Miao, J., Atteberry, H., Nichols, D., Evans, A., Menendez, T., Lee, C., & Wang, S. (2016). Effects of funding allocation for safe routes to school programs on active commuting to school and related behavioral, knowledge, and psychosocial outcomes: Results from the Texas childhood obesity prevention policy evaluation (T-COPPE) study. Environment and Behavior, 48(1), 210-229.
Hooshmand, J., Hotz, G., Neilson, V., & Chandler, L. (2014). BikeSafe: Evaluating a bicycle safety program for middle school aged children. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 66, 182-186.
Høye, A. (2018). Recommend or mandate? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of mandatory bicycle helmet legislation. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 120, 239-249.
Hu, P. S., & Reuscher, T. R. (2004). Summary of travel trends: 2001 National Household Travel Survey (Report No. FHWA-PL-92-027). Federal Highway Administration. http://nhts.ornl.gov/2001/pub/STT.pdf
Huertas-Leyva, P., Dozza, M., & Baldanzini, N. (2018). Investigating cycling kinematics and braking maneuvers in the real world: E-bikes make cyclists move faster, brake harder, and experience new conflicts. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 54, 211-222.
Hunter, W. H., Stutts, J. C., Pein, W. E., & Cox, C. L. (1996). Pedestrian and bicycle crash types of the early 1990’s (Report No. FHWA-RD-95-163). Federal Highway Administration. www.pedbikeinfo.org/cms/downloads/PedBikeCrashTypes.pdf
Huybers, S., Fenerty, L., Kureshi, N., Thibault-Halman, G., LeBlanc, J. C., Clarke, D. B., & Walling, S. (2017). Long-term effects of education and legislation enforcement on all-age bicycle helmet use: A longitudinal study. Journal of Community Health, 42(1), 83-89.
Jacobsen, P. L. (2003) Safety in numbers: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling. Injury Prevention 9, 205-209 and 2004, Correction Injury Prevention, 10, 127.
Jewett, A., Beck, L. F., Taylor, C., & Baldwin, G. (2016). Bicycle helmet use among persons 5 years and older in the United States, 2012. Journal of Safety Research, 59, 1-7.
Johnson, M., & Rose, G. (2016, January 10-14). E-bike safety: Insights from a survey of Australian e-bike riders. Transportation Research Board 95th Annual Meeting. Transportation Research Board.
Kanny, D., Schieber, R. A., Pryor, V., & Kresnow, M. J. (2001). Effectiveness of a State law mandating use of bicycle helmets among children: An observational evaluation. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154, 1072-1076.
Karkhaneh, M., Kalenga, J-C., Hagel, B. E., & Rowe, B. H. (2006). Effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation to increase helmet use: A systematic review. Injury Prevention, 12, 67-82.
Karkhaneh, M., Rowe, B. H., Saunders, L. D., Voaklander, D. C., & Hagel, B. E. (2011). Bicycle helmet use four years after the introduction of helmet legislation in Alberta, Canada. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(3), 788-796.
Karkhaneh, M., Rowe, B. H., Saunders, L. D., Voaklander, D. C., & Hagel, B. E. (2013). Trends in head injuries associated with mandatory bicycle helmet legislation targeting children and adolescents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 59, 206-212.
Karsch, H. M., Hedlund, J. M., Tison, J., & Leaf, W. A. (2012, June). Review of studies on pedestrian and bicyclist safety, 1991-2007 (Report No. DOT HS 811 614). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/811614.pdf
Koo, H. S., & Huang, X. (2015). Visibility aid cycling clothing: Flashing light-emitting diode (FLED) configurations. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 27(3), 460-471. doi 10.1108/IJCST-09-2014-0104
Kwan, I. & Mapstone, J. (2004). Visibility aids for pedestrians and cyclists: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 36, 305–312
Lachapelle, U., Noland, R. B., & Von Hagen, L. A. (2013). Teaching children about bicycle safety: An evaluation of the New Jersey bike school program. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 52, 237-249.
Lahrmann, H., Madsen, T. K., & Olesen, A. V. (2018). Randomized trials and self-reported accidents as a method to study safety-enhancing measures for cyclists—Two case studies. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 114, 17-24.
Lahrmann, H., Madsen, T. K. O., Olesen, A. V., Madsen, J. C. O., & Hels, T. (2018). The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents. Safety Science, 108, 209-217.
Leden, L., Garder, P., & Pulkkinen, U., (2000). An expert judgment model applied to estimating the safety effect of a bicycle facility. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 32, 589-599.
Macpherson, A., & Spinks, A. (2007). Bicycle helmet legislation for the uptake of helmet use and prevention of head injuries. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 8.
McArthur, A., Savolainen, P., & Gates, T. (2014). Spatial Analysis of Child Pedestrian and Bicycle Crashes: Development of Safety Performance Function for Areas Adjacent to Schools. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2465, 57-63.
McKenzie, B. (2014). Modes less traveled – Bicycling and walking to work in the United States: 2008-2012. U.S. Census Bureau. www2.census.gov/library/publications/2014/acs/acs-25.pdf
McKenzie, B., Fields, A., Risley. M., & Sawyer. C. R. (2017). 2016 American community survey content test evaluation report: Journey to work – Travel mode of commute and time of departure for work. U.S. Census Bureau. www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/working-papers/2017/acs/2017_McKenzie_01.pdf
Michael, P. D., Davenport, D. L., & Draus, J. M. (2017). Bicycle helmets save more than heads: Experience from a pediatric level I trauma hospital. The American Surgeon, 83(9), 1007-1011.
Moudon, A. V., & Kang, M. (2017). Safe Main Street highways part II: Analyses of collisions involving pedestrians and bicyclists in Washington State. www.depts.washington.edu/pactrans/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/2015_S_UW-76-Moudon_Safe-Main-Street-Highways-II-PacTrans.compressed.pdf
Muennig, P. A., Epstein, M., Li, G., & DiMaggio, C. (2014). The Cost-Effectiveness of New York City’s Safe Routes to School Program. American Journal of Public Health, 104(7), 1294-1299.
Mwakalonge, J. L., White, J., & Siuhi, S. (2014, January 12-16). Distracted biking: A review of current state of knowledge (p. 22). 93rd Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington, DC. https://trid.trb.org/view/1287185
National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO). (2014). Urban bikeway design guide. www.nacto.org/cities-for-cycling/design-guide/
National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2020). Bicyclists and other cyclists: 2018 data (Traffic Safety Facts. Report No. DOT HS 812 884). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/812884
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2004). Safe Routes to School: Practice and promise. https://one.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/bike/safe-routes-2004/index.html
NHTSA. (2008). Bicycle helmet use laws (Report No. DOT HS 810 886W). www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/TSFLaws/PDFs/810886.pdf
NHSTA (2009-2018). Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) [Custom data set analysis]. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
NHTSA. (2015). Traffic safety facts 2012 data: Bicyclists and other cyclists. (Report No. DOT HS 812 018). https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/812018
Olivier, J., Boufous, S., & Grzebieta, R. (2019). The impact of bicycle helmet legislation on cycling fatalities in Australia. International Journal of Epidemiology, 48(4), 1197-1203.
Olivier, J., & Creighton, P. (2017). Bicycle injuries and helmet use: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 46(1), 278-292.
Olivier, J., Walter, S. R., & Grzebieta, R. H. (2013). Long term bicycle related head injury trends for New South Wales, Australia following mandatory helmet legislation. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 50, 1128-1134.
Osberg, J. S., Stiles, S. C., & Asare, O. K. (1998). Bicycle safety behavior in Paris and Boston. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 30, 679-687.
Persaud, N., Coleman, E., Zwolakowski, D., Lauwers, B., & Cass, D. (2012). Nonuse of bicycle helmets and risk of fatal head injury: A proportional mortality, case-control study. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 184, E921-E923.
Pucher, J., Buehler, R., Merom, D., & Bauman, A. (2011). Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the NHTS. American Journal of Public Health, 101, S310- S317.
Puder, D. R., Visintainer, P., Spitzer, D., & Casal, D. (1999). A comparison of the effect of different bicycle helmet laws in 3 New York City suburbs. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1736-1738.
Raborn, C., Torbic, D. J., Gilmore, D. K., Thomas, L. J., Hutton, J. M., Pfefer, R., Neuman, T. R., Slack, K. L., Bond, V., & Hardy, K. K. (2008). A guide for reducing collisions involving bicycles. Transportation Research Board. www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/156839.aspx
Radun, I., & Olivier, J. (2018). Bicycle helmet law does not deter cyclists in Finland. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 58, 1087-1090.
Richard, J-B., Thélot, B., & Beck, F. (2013). Evolution of bicycle helmet use and its determinants in France: 2000-2010. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 60, 113-120.
Rivara, F. P., Thompson, D. C., Patterson, M. Q., & Thompson, R. S. (1998). Prevention of bicycle-related injuries: helmets, education, and legislation. Annual Review of Public Health, 19, 293-318.
Rodgers, G. B. (2002). Effects of state helmet laws on bicycle helmet use by children and adolescents. Injury Prevention, 8, 42-46.
Sandt, L., LaJeunesse, S., Cohn, J., Pullen-Seufert, N., & Gallagher, J. (2015). Watch for Me NC: Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety, Education, and Enforcement Campaign: 2014 Program Summary (No. NCDOT Contract# 2014‐45). www.watchformenc.org/wp-content/themes/WatchForMeNC_Custom/documents/WFM_FinalReport_2014.pdf
Scheiman, S., Moghaddas, H. S., Bjornstig, U., Bylundb, P.-O., & Saveman, B.-I. (2010). Bicycle injury events among older adults in Northern Sweden: A 10-year population based study. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42, 758-763.
Schroeder, P. & Wilbur, M. (2013, October). 2012 National survey of bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behavior, Volume 2: Findings report (Report No. DOT HS 811 841 B). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1957
Shinar, D., Valero-Mora, P., van Strijp-Houtenbos, M., Haworth, N., Schramm, A., De Bruyne, G., Cavallo, V., Chliaoutakis, J., Dias, J., Ferraro, O. E., Fyhri, A., Hursa Sajatovic, A., Kuklane, K., Ledesma, R., Mascarell, O., Morandi, A., Muser, M., Otte, D., & Tzamalouka, G. (2018). Under-reporting bicycle accidents to police in the COST TU1101 international survey: Cross-country comparisons and associated factors. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 110, 177-186.
Stutts, J, C., & Hunter, W. W. (1999a). Injuries to pedestrians and bicyclists: An analysis based on hospital emergency department data. Federal Highway Administration. www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/pedbike/99078/
Stutts, J. C. & Hunter, W. W. (1999b). Motor vehicle and roadway factors in pedestrian and bicyclist injuries: An examination based on emergency department data. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 31, 505-514.
Thomas, L., Masten, S., & Stutts, J. (2005). Impact of school-based, hands-on bicycle safety education approaches for school-aged children. University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center.
Thomas, L., Nordback, K., & Sanders, R. (2019). Bicyclist crash types on national, state, and local levels: A new look. Transportation Research Record, 2673(6), 664–676. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361198119849056
Thompson, D. C., Rivara, F. P., & Thompson R. (2006). Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. www.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab001855.html
Thornley, S. J., Woodward, A., Langley, J. D., Ameratunga, S. N. & Rodgers, A. (2008). Conspicuity and bicycle crashes: Preliminary findings of the Taupo bicycle study. Injury Prevention, 14, 11-18.
Walter, S. R., Olivier, J., Churches, T., & Grzebieta, R. (2011). The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43, 2064-2071.
Wesson, D. E., Stephens, D., Lam, K., Parsons, D., Spence, L., & Parkin, P. C. (2008). Trends in pediatric and adult bicycling deaths before and after passage of a bicycle helmet law. Pediatrics, 122, 605-610.
Wolfe, E. S., Arabian, S. S., Breeze, J. L., & Salzler, M. J. (2016). Distracted biking: An observational study. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 23(2), 65-70.
Wood, J. M., Tyrrell, R. A., Marszalek, R., Lacherez, P., Carberry, T., & Chu, B. S. (2012). Using reflective clothing to enhance the conspicuity of bicyclists at night. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 45, 726-730.
Zanotto, M., & Winters, M. L. (2017). Helmet use among personal bicycle riders and bike share users in Vancouver, BC. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 53(4), 465-472.
Zegeer, C. V., Stutts, J., Huang, H., Cynecki, M. J., Van Houten, R., Alberson, B., Pfefer, R., Neuman, T. R., Slack, & Hardy, K. K. (2004). Guidance for implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Volume 10: A guide for reducing collisions involving pedestrians. Transportation Research Board. www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/154863.aspx
Back to Top